Database management is the process to manage information that is essential to the business operations of an organization. It involves storing data and distribution to application programs and users making changes as needed as well as monitoring changes to the data and preventing it from becoming corrupted by unexpected failures. It is a part of the overall informational infrastructure of a company that supports decision making in corporate growth, as well as compliance with laws like the GDPR and California Consumer Privacy Act.

The first database systems were created in the 1960s by Charles Bachman, IBM and others. They evolved into information management systems (IMS) which made it possible to store and retrieve large amounts information for a range of uses, from calculating inventory to supporting complicated financial accounting and human resources functions.

A database consists of a set of tables that store data in accordance with a specific pattern, for example, one-to-many relationships. It makes use of primary keys to identify records and allow cross-references between tables. Each table has a set of fields, also known as attributes, that represent facts about the entities that comprise the data. Relational models, developed by E. F. “TedCodd Codd in the 1970s at IBM, are the most well-known database type in the present. This design is based on normalizing data to make it easier to use. It also makes it simpler to update data since it eliminates the need to change different sections of the database.

Most DBMSs can support different types of databases by offering different levels of external and internal organization. The internal level addresses costs, scalability, and other operational issues like the design of the database’s physical storage. The external level focuses on how the database appears in user interfaces and other applications. It may include a mix of different external views based on different data models. It could include virtual tables that are calculated using generic data to enhance the performance.